The following map shows energy usage in kWh per stage and the emission of CO2 and NOx per stage. Hovering over the maps generates numbers of emission per specific stage. The green flows represent the energy streams that are generated with energy supplied by GreenChoice. The dark orange flows represent the energy that is generated using a diesel generator. Below a more detailed explaination is given on the energy usage of DGTL in the context of Amsterdam.
DGTL's energy flows
Aligned with the national climate ambitions, Amsterdam set a local sustainability agenda to create a climate neutral city. To obtain these goals, the metropolitan region aims to reduce its CO2 emissions by 50% in 2030 and 95% in 2050. Current annual CO2 emissions is set at 4.437 kiloton. This has a negative effect on the temperature of the city, as well as its air quality. To mitigate these impacts Amsterdam particularly targets its most carbon intensive sector: the energy sector. The Dutch capital aims to increase green energy production by generating 1.000 MW of solar power between now and 2040. The aim is to generate 20% of green energy per year per citizen by in relation to 2013 (Gemeente Amsterdam, 2015).
In the Netherlands over 1300 festivals take place, of which around 300 are hosted in Amsterdam (Iamsterdam, 2020). These festivals are largely dependent on energy to supply music, light, and art installations as well as food courts and other systems. To put this demand in perspective, the energy DGTL needs during one weekend equals the yearly energy consumption of almost 2 households. Imagine the energy that all these festivals would need over the course of 3 to 4 months. The image below shows that the energy sector is the larges emitter of CO2 of all economic sectors.
CO2 emissions per sector
To ensure that existing events can still take place in the future, festivals need to significantly reduce their carbon footprint, and thus have to start making conscious decisions about the energy sources they opt for. DGTL is well aware of this and has taken measures to reduce its CO2 and NOx emissions. In 2016, the festival contracted Green Choice, a grid supplier exclusively providing power from Dutch windmills. Subsequently, DGTL’s CO2 and NOx emissions have dropped by 78,6% and 100% respectively.
Energy sources used at DGTL in kWh
In 2020, DGTL strives for reduction by removing its diesel generators. In 2018 there were 3 generators running on diesel. In 2019 there was only one back-up generator. By 2020, the municipality had implemented enough power points for DGTL to remove all diesel generators. Since the electricity that comes out of the plug is a mix of renewable and non-renewable energy, the festival's energy use is not completely emission free (Kotvis, 2020). However, investing in green energy gives a positive message to other festivals to also contract a green energy supplier. If more festivals decide to buy energy from green suppliers, these suppliers can become more competitive with fossil fuel driven power plants (Ambrose, 2019). The image below gives an indication of the CO2 emission per energy usage. It becomes clear that increased use of green energy sources will reduce emission from energy use.
CO2 emissions (CO2eq/kWh) of electricity generation
Although DGTL is working hard to reduce its energy usage and increase its share of green energy, there is still room for improvement. In 2019 bio diesel generators were installed to cover for unexpected energy demands. Over the course of three days, a diesel generator can emit up to 2117 kg of CO2 (method pdf). Recycled biofuel could be used as as an alternative form of fuel to run these back-up generators. Biofuels such as biogas, syngas, and ethanol are considerably better for the environment than conventional fuels like petrol and diesel (Pandey., 2019). Even better is the aim to eliminate these generators entirely in 2020 and generate all electricity from the grid. Additionally, to increase the share of green energy, for future years, DGTL could invest in energy generation during the festival with the implementation of solar panels and other techniques. If DGTL could generate its entire energy demand on site, it would have complete control over the production which would enable the festival to reach the goal of being CO2 free.